To Iris…

Today I watched you fascinated with death.

This is not an easy subject to talk about, and was not at the time, but I feel I must write down for you what I really wanted you to remember.

Today you returned from school, and in the dirt pit you carefully dug next to the driveway as a home for your woodlice “rolly polly” friends, was a dying house finch chick. A blind, helpless, struggling, limp, featherless chick. An animal, a bird yes and not a mammal, but still a living, bleeding, feeling, lost infant. Lost in the hopelessness of its situation. You asked me if there was a way we could help it, and I looked around and knew of no nest that it could have come from. I was being honest: you know I would have taken it back to its nest if I knew where that nest was. I could even hear what I thought was the sibling of that chick calling out in a nest nearby, but there were so many nests nearby… it would have taken me a half hour to find one and then it may not have been the right one.

I asked you to leave it to die. I asked. And yet, you went inside and then asked to go back outside. And where did you go, but back to the chick. And you sat, for minutes, and watched it flail about in the pit. I watched you watch it point its beak to the sky for food, voiceless. I watched you watch it blindly try to amble its body so that it could move somewhere, anywhere, closer to home, safety. After a few minutes I repeated and said you should leave it to die. And you left. A half hour later, I was back outside to water plants, and it was on its back, twitching as the final bonds with our plane of existence were being severed… dead.

I want you to understand why I asked you to leave.

Not that I could have explained it better, or even can explain that better until one day you have to deal with someone else’s mortality. I want you to understand why I let you watch it die even for more than a few seconds. I want you to understand the importance of life.

Sometimes all of us struggle. All of us encounter some kind of hardship. But every once in a while, one of us encounters something insurmountable. Something we try to convince ourselves is not a big deal at first, in then end, kills us. This is tragic enough. But sometimes it is much worse. We are the observers of this process, and memories survive past the event. We watch a being presented with a path that leads to their ultimate destruction. We wonder if it could have been us. If somehow we could be the chick in the pit. Blind. Naked.

At some point you will be the observer of me being the chick, and some day you will be the chick. Hopefully in that order, but in the end we all end up there. Just a few weeks ago your grandfather was the observer. He played cards with your great-grandmother, fully convinced that something was not right but still he left her happy with her memories and picture of the now. She died hours later. You met her. You know she was real, breathing, kinda creepy but definitely not fake. Now you think you understand mortality because you know she is dead, because you think you watched something die. But today you definitely watched something die, assured that there was nothing to be done. You may realize that in the morning when you see either no chick or its lifeless body in the pit. Or it may be later. But you will.

I am here to tell you this:

We have to approach life knowing that sometimes the death of the chick is assured. That death can be the most personal thing any being has control of in their lives. Or, sadly, the first and last chance they get to have control of any aspect of their lives (as with the chick). Lots of people will tell you that you have one life to live. Often this is because they want to get into your pants. I want to tell you something else though:

Each of us gets one death, live life accordingly.

March 14th Fiesta Island Competition Launch Recap

I decided to get more involved in rocket design last year, and thought competitive rocketry would be a good way to test my design and building skills without breaking the bank. The last competition was postponed into our Christmas vacation (I had a nice B altitude airframe ready!) so I was itching for the next competitive launch. This one was delayed once as well, but luckily it all worked out.

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Toyota Accelerator Pedal Position (APP) Sensor Redux

I am continuing to follow the developments with the issue of unintended acceleration in certain models of Toyota vehicles.

An article appeared today, on the Popular Mechanics website, written by Mike Allen. In it, he makes the following claim:

The benefit of Hall-effect sensors is that … other electronics, such as amplifiers, aren’t needed.

Well, he offers no proof of this. I would bet good money (if I had any) that there is an actual op-amp in the Hall IC. I decided to do more research, in the hopes that someone has taken one of these pedals apart far enough to perhaps get a serial number off one of the pair of Hall ICs. Well, this has not happened yet. And sorry Mike, I do not feel it is wise to let Toyota off the hook quite yet. This is an opportunity for us to grow as engineers.

Regardless, several things have come to light.

First, there was the testimony of David Gilbert before congress. In his testimony, he describes how he was able to spoof the ECU by shorting the signal wire coming from one (or both) of the Hall ICs. He did not provide details in his testimony however. But this is very interesting to say the least!

This lead me to my second and third finds.

Toyota ETCS APP Signal

In the former, we see figure 4 which presents us with a schematic of the APP sensor and a graph of the voltage response. Basically, there are two signal voltages that rise at the same rate as the pedal is depressed. In the latter, we are given by user Zurk a slightly more detailed picture of the operational parameters (voltages) expected by the ECU, including the variances. No references are cited, but it appears to be legit based on the other evidence. Taken together, it is quite easy to see how the supply voltage to the Hall ICs, if shorted to both signals similarly and at the same time, could produce an arbitrary anomalous throttle response. All it would take is an appropriate resistance.

Fundamentally, I still say Toyota made a poor design decision. You have two signal voltages that have VERY similar responses, and you expect the ECU to reject a common failure like a short? Imagine instead if the design had one voltage ramp up while the other drops. In that case, a short would DEFINITELY be picked up by the ECU: both voltages would be “rising” at the same time! Not to mention the magnet creating the signal in the first place is excluded from your redundancy calculation.

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Toyota Pedal Design: e-Gas and Potentiometers vs. Hall Effect Position Sensors

There has been considerable news lately on the Toyota e-gas accelerator pedal recall. Toyota has seemed to be blowing smoke, only recently being forced by the NTSB into admitting there was a real mechanical problem with the device.

Besides the mechanical problem which seems to be friction related, several commentators have weighed in about the existence of a possible electrical or software defect that might be the root cause in some of the deadly crashes. The purpose of this post is to shine some light into this debate.

In general, automotive engineers have to chose between two electronic methods of obtaining the driver’s accelerator pedal input: Hall effect or potentiometer. Hall effect sensors work by amplifying the off-axis voltage created in a wire when a magnetic field passes by, and generally have zero moving parts. Potentiometers on the other hand depend on a sliding contact which varies the resistance over the circuit. Potentiometers are known to fail, Hall sensors are not. However, it is a little more nuanced than that. Hall sensors are extremely reliable binary sensors (on/off or square wave), used to do things like tell if the crankshaft is (or is not) at TDC. Using the Hall effect to measure continuously variable position requires more complex circuit design. And yes, on chip op-amps are commonly used.

Regardless of what implementation you choose as an engineer, you have to anticipate device failure, in this case a deviation between the interpreted and actual pedal positions. More circuit or mechanical complexity leads to more failure modes, some of which may not be clear to the engineer. If one of these failure modes is detected (note my emphasis!) then you have to force the engine into either limp mode or full idle. All e-gas vehicles (to my knowledge) include this check, although implementation differ. If you can’t detect the failure OR protect the operator from deviation, your device fails. So you better be able to do this 100% of the time.

I happen to have one of those first e-gas cars, a 1999 VW Jetta. VW AG had, for this vehicle, chosen the potentiometer route. The most glaring failure mode of a sliding contact electrical device is fairly clear: the contacts erode. In a potentiometer, this leads to discontinuities in the resistance change. To compensate for this, VW placed two reverse-oriented potentiometers in the same package. Note that these two sensors are completely separate electrical devices! The signal provided to the ECU is thereby two mirror-image resistances (that vary quite considerably I might mention). I believe the resistance varies from 1000 to 1800 Ohms (and 1800 to 1000 for the other pot). As a check, the ECU takes the average of the two resistances. If this average fluctuates too far from a predetermined value a massive error is thrown and the engine goes into limp mode (max 2000 RPM for VW).

Oh, but they did not stop there! Instead of racking their brains over what failure mode they were missing and how to compensate for it, they went one step further and implemented the catch-all Brake Priority. In a nutshell, if the ECU thinks you want gas AND brake, the brake wins and the engine goes into idle until you take your foot off the brake.

Now to switch manufacturers, as recently released pictures of the internals of both the CTS and Denso pedals used by Toyota show, their engineers chose the Hall sensor route. I am not going to fault them here. Hall is a great choice for one reason alone: no moving parts in the circuit. The device will never wear out unless the magnet becomes demagnetized, which is highly unlikely and in any event would (probably) lead to the device failing to read anything at all. I say probably because I can’t say precisely how the device itself works, there may be a way to fool the Hall circuitry.

The devil is in the details though. Hall needs there to be a fairly large magnet in there, and due to the distances from the pedal to the ECU you need a dedicated amplification circuit at the pedal to prevent noise overcoming the weak signal. I know Toyota has two redundant Hall position sensor sets (the pictures clearly show this). I do know that in both pedals there is only one magnet. I do not know if Toyota chose redundant ICs for the circuitry in the pedal. Basically, you have two redundant circuits reporting the position of the same magnet! Electrically redundant, kinda. I would say not redundant at all as a matter of fact. So the glaring failure mode here is if your magnet becomes entrapped or broken from the pedal assembly. Toyota’s pedal design does not account for this type of failure. It is also impossible to tell without destroying a pedal whether they are using independent ICs, and if they are not there is a second unaccounted for failure mode (failure in the amplification circuit).

So how do we take this a step further as a Toyota engineer? What have we missed? What about EMPs? Cosmic rays? Massive electromagnetic vehicle scanning devices? Could these fool the sensitive Hall circuitry? Well, apparently not (at least not probably), as Toyota decided to forgo the catch-all Brake Priority.

So there you have it. The VW implementation uses a sensor that will not last forever, but is in all other conceivable (and inconceivable) ways protected from deviations from operator request. The Toyota implementation uses a zero maintenance sensor, but is not mechanically (or even electrically) redundant and does not account for undetected deviations from operator request.

I will leave it to the reader to decide whether it is safe to roll the dice and get into a Toyota. I personally will not get into one of these vehicles again, and recommend all my relatives think twice. Toyota should recall all of their e-gas vehicles and implement Brake Priority, which is a simple ECU flash that should take less than 15 minutes per car.tramadol order online overnight shipping the quick bogus
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Last weekend we went to Plaster City for Plaster Blaster 8. We arrived Friday night and the wind was calm enough that several folks were lighting off their nightime birds (a skidmark motor is amazing at night!). Saturday I qualified NAR level 1 (thanks Howard Smart!) with my PML IO on an Aerotech H 128 W. Iris launched her Estes Baby Bertha on a C-6 motor. My second flight of the IO on the same motor the black powder charge failed to go off and it came in sideways and rolling axially the whole way. Kinda physics defying, actually. I am still confused why it did not nose over! The altimeter showed apogee just under 2400 feet and an impact velocity of 14 mph… but the airframe is still cracked all over and two fins broke free.

The worst part was the sand people. Damn ATV parents and their untethered children… almost ran Iris over once and our tent several times.

Here is a picture of me with my two wrist bands (level 0 and 1)… the mark of an up and comer!


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